Avdeeva Tat'yana Petrovna, Doctor of engineering sciences, professor, sub-department of anthropogenic safety, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Rozen Andrey Evgenyevich, Doctor of engineering sciences, professor, head of sub-department of welding, foundry production and materials science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. In the world about 20 tons of waste is the annual share of every living person. The problem of waste disposal is a major international problem. Currently, various countries have developed and the pyrolysis units, which allow to utilize industrial waste along with household waste. For all pyrolysis plants is common to produce almost no air and water pollution. In Penza State University there has also been made a prototype of a pyrolysis plant. The aim of this work is to study the disposal effectiveness of various wastes at the given plant.
Materials and methods. Measurement of concentration of gaseous pollutants and dust was performed by the laboratory of environmental and industrial hygiene of the Scientific Production Association “START" named after M. V. Protsenko" under the State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom". Complex biological studies to determine the degree of highly toxic waste disposal from the base mixture into the environmentally safe components through the high-temperature pyrolysis were carried out by the State Research Institute of Industrial Ecology at the Regional Center of State environmental control and monitoring in the Penza region. Determination of the waste hazard class was carried out experimentally in accordance with the law of the Ministry of Natural Resources from June 15, 2001 № 511 "On approval of the criteria for classifying hazardous waste classified as dangerous for the environment." The experimental method was based on biotesting of waste. Experiments were conducted on daphnia, freshwater algae; the changes in intensity of bacterial luminescence were also studied.
Results. The researchers received the results of the pyrolysis process efficiency for four types of industrial waste and carried out a research of the waste’s hazard class and the dilution safety indicator for the source material and the material obtained after pyrolysis. The authors conducted a chemical analysis of substances entering the air after the pyrolysis process and measured concentrations of suspended particles after each stage of purification. The researchers evaluated the effectiveness of the pyrolysis gases’ purification by dedusting devices which are installed in the plant, and obtained the results of the pyrolysis process according to time and weight of diminution for all the investigated waste substance.
Conclusions. The researchers held industrial testing of a pyrolysis plant prototype intended for waste disposal. It was found that the prototype system ensures disposal of different industrial solid waste. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the pyrolysis method for the four types of waste. The researchers studied gaseous pollutants entering the atmospheric air, measured their concentrations and compared to the maximum permissible concentration. The authors also estimated the devices installed in the plant, designed to purify the pyrolysis gases from suspended particles and the effectiveness of the ongoing process of pyrolysis of waste according to time and mass diminution. On the basis of the studies it is found that the plant meets the modern requirements concerning waste management and disposal.
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